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Sky Quality Meter LU-DL-V - FAQ

SQM-LU-DL-V Questions

How do you gather an all sky plot using the SQM-LU-DL-V?

Sweep it around the sky by hand. The LED on the back of the unit will flash after each reading is gathered. The operators manual explains how to set the unit up for this operation.

What software is available for the SQM-LU-DL-V?

The Unihedron Device Manager software (which is an Opensource FreePascal/Lazarus GUI program) can be used to set up the device, gather readings and log data.

A Perl script GUI program is available to interact with the datalogging features. You can check it out here for Windows or Unix.

The other software on the CD and the Knightware SQM-Reader programs still access all the standard SQM-LU functions. Also, the software interface is fully open and documented in the operators manual so that you can write your own software.

Is the SQM-LU-DL-V waterproof?

No, the SQM-LU-DL-V is not weatherproof. For permanent mounting outside, it should be mounted in a weatherproof housing.

We sell such a housing here.

For people using the unit only during telescope observations, the meter can be stowed away with the telescope.

Here is a source for plastic domes:
Some considerations for preparing a high end weatherproof enclosure:
  • The enclosure should be thermostated and heated to keep condensation off the top of the dome.
  • There should be some airflow inside the enclosure to prevent condensation.
  • Airflow from inside to outside usually means insects are a factor and that means a screen would be required.
  • Circulating the air may require a fan.

What is the upper operating temperature of the SQM-LU-DL-V?

The maximum operating temperature of all the components inside the SQM-LU is 85C. The light sensor readings are compensated for temperature fluctuations. The temperature sensor located very close to the light sensor.

General SQM Questions

What kind of sensor is used in the Sky Quality Meter?
A TAOS TSL237S sensor is used, you can view the specs here. The sensor is covered with a HOYA CM-500 filter, you can view the spectral response curves here, PDF spec sheet here including response data points.

Should the meter be recalibrated?
Normally there is no recalibration required. However, in some cases we have seen that the IR filter becomes frosted due to moisture. Take a look into the lens and you should see a clear blue area (the IR filter) and a small black dot (the sensor). If there is a white frosting on the blue glass, then the unit will require recalibration. Contact here for recalibration.

Do you provide a calibration certificate?
There is no calibration certificate available. The NIST meter that we use to calibrate against is the EXTECH Instruments Model 401027. You can read more about Extech meters here

Do you have any benchmarks for linking magnitudes per square arc sec with the Bortle scale?
We believe that if you check this Wikipedia Bortle Dark-Sky Scale link, the descriptions associated with each mag/sq arcsec are sufficiently detailed that you could draw up a pretty decent correspondence.

Have you measured the spectral response of the detector with the IR rejection filter, and how closely does it match the response of the human eye?
We haven't measured the spectral response curve ourselves, but the sensor manufacturer has. It is very close to that of the human eye. The Hoya CM-500 filter cuts off the entire infrared part of the spectrum. The response is that of the "clear" line in Figure 2 of the TCS230 datasheet (which is for a different sensor in the TAOS line).

The combined spectral response compared to other standards is shown in this Night Sky Photometry with Sky Quality Meter report in Fig 12, on page 6.

Do you know the contribution from the Milky Way with the wide-angle of acceptance of your photometer? I would like to subtract the Milky Way if possible.

The northern Milky Way contributes about 0.10 mpsas under 21.5 mpsas (moonless) skies.

The southern Milky Way might be as big an effect as 0.85 mpsas where it goes near-overhead.

For more information, see Surface Photometries of the Milky Way (Schlosser+ 1997)

How does transparency affect the SQM readings?

The SQM's readings are assuming 'best transparency'.

You can get an updated definition of the transparency in your area from:

Also, frequently local weather stations can provide "visibility" and "relative humidity" numbers which could potentially be used as surrogates for actual transparency measurements (which aren't possible with a handheld meter).

How does zodiacal light affect the SQM readings?
It is likely to be less than a 1 or 2 percent effect. The primary reason is that the brightest and widest part of the zodiacal light is nearest the horizon where the SQM has almost no sensitivity (due to it being a zenith-looking device). The portions at higher altitude are the narrowest and faintest and they would barely creep into the sensitivity cone of the SQM.

What are "Magnitudes per Square Arc Second"?

Magnitudes are a measurement of an objects brightness, for example a star that is 6th magnitude is brighter than a star that is 11th magnitude.

The term arcsecond comes from an arc being divided up into seconds. There are 360 degrees in an circle, and each degree is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute is divided into 60 seconds. A square arc second has an angular area of one second by one second.

The term magnitudes per square arc second means that the brightness in magnitudes is spread out over an square arcsecond of the sky. If the SQM provides a reading of 20.00, that would be like saying that a light of a 20th magnitude star brightness was spread over one square arcsecond of the sky.

Quite often astronomers will refer to a sky being a "6th magnitude sky", in that case you can see 6th magnitude stars and nothing dimmer like 11th magnitude stars. The term "6th magnitude skies" is very subjective to a persons ability to see in the night, for example I might say "6th magnitude skies" but a young child with better night vision might say "7th magnitude skies". You can use this nifty calculator created by SQM user K. Fisher to do that conversion, or this chart.

The "magnitudes per square arcsecond" numbers are commonly used in astronomy to measure sky brightness, below is a link to such a comparison. See the third table in section 10 for a good chart showing how these numbers in magnitudes per square arcsecond relate to natural situations:


Each magnitude lower (numerically) means just over 2.5 times as much more light is coming from a given patch of sky. A change of 5 mags/sq arcsec means the sky is 100x brighter.

Also, a reading of greater than 22.0 is unlikely to be recorded and the darkest we've personally experienced is 21.80.

Reading accuracy

The value produced by the sensor in the SQM is affected by temperature. There is a temperature sensor in the SQM that compensates for this effect. However, when the SQM is first powered up, the light sensor is colder than when the power has been on for a few seconds. Depending on the ambient temperature this will result in the first reading being slightly higher than subsequent readings.

For the most accurate results, it is best to take many readings and disregard the very first reading.

The temperature sensor and light sensor are separated on the circuit board. Waiting for a while will allow a changing temperature to migrate so that both sensors are at the same temperature.

This issue is due to the transient response of the TSL237 which briefly changes its light-to-frequency characteristic when it is warmed by applied power. Ironically, the normally very sensible practice of leaving it out at the environmental temperature probably makes it more significant.

What is the range of the Sky Quality Meters

There is no specific limit on the range of the SQM because the calibration step fixes the maximum and minimum frequencies to intermediate values. For normal night-time viewing, the meter should accurately read from about 16 to 23 mpsas, but is it has a range from about 7 (brightest) to 23 (darkest).

Each sensor is slightly different. The calibration uses the dark period of the sensor compared to a frequency at a specified light level.

The meter sets a bright limit of 400kHz which is the specification for light saturation of the TSL237S sensor. When the sensor frequency reaches this value, the output is set to 0 mpsas. The only thing that will extend sensitivity in bright settings is to limit the amount of light received with an optical filter. Filters can be fitted over the meter manually or with the help of an adaptor like these.

The internal limit for the dark period is 60 seconds which works out to about 26mpsas for most sensors.

Some testing can be done using the UDM software with simulation mode on a connected meter.

Can the mpsas readings be converted to Lux or Foot Candles

No. Lux (lx) and foot candles (fc) are a measure of "Illumination" (light hitting a surface). Meters that measure this usually have a white surface were light hits and is measured by a sensor inside which is calibrated to Lux or fc.

The SQM measures "Luminance", the light given off by a surface. In the case of night sky viewing for astronomy, it is the light given from the night sky that you would see with your eye. Luminance meters see the light as your eye would (from a point outwards in a cone) and only a small sensor area is used. The SQM produces a reading of magnitudes per square arcsecond which can be converted to other Luminance values like "candela per square meter". We have such a converter on our website here.

When determining brightness differences with the SQM, you can convert the reading to cd/m^2 then get the ratio between your various readings by division. Using this method, you should be able to say that "light fixture A is X times brighter than light fixture B".

For the Sky Quality Meters, the un-diffused value of light is received in a cone shape with the response shown here.

Temperature reading

For purposes of light sensor compensation, there is a temperature sensor located inside the meter.

This internal temperature reading is available to the user. The value is not the ambient or outdoor temperature.

How to point the meter

The meter is calibrated to be pointed upwards (Zenith) when taking readings.

Pointing in directions that see obstructions or the ground will result in inaccurate readings.

Can the field of view be narrowed

Adding a shroud is possible, but it will likely cover the field of view, then the reading will become darker by a fixed amount. You can determine that darkening amount by taking readings with/without the shroud in an evenly lit dark open sky. Then you would subtract your shrouded readings by that measured difference.

See FOV comparison chart for as reference of what the field view is for your meter.